Brief History of Science & Technology
2000 BC Chinese developed Acupuncture
1900 BC Knowledge of Geometry documented
1500 BC Iron Age began in Southwest Asia
550 BC Anaximander Mapped the World
500 BC Pythagorean Theorem discovered
430 BC Democritus teaches that everything is made of atoms.
350 BC Aristotle classifies Plants and Animals
Hippocratic Oath originates
330 BC Aristotle teaches that the Universe is made of concentric spheres, centred on the Earth.
300 BC Euclid gathered together and wrote down the mathematical knowledge of his time.
240 BC Eratosthenes Measured the Earth’s Circumference Archimedes calculated Pi
215 BC Archimedes discovered law of Hydrostatics
105 AD Paper made in China.
132 Chinese philosopher Chang Heng invented a Seismoscope.
140 Greek astronomer Ptolemy proposed a model of universe with Earth Stationary at the centre.
450 Indian Physician Susruta described ill and treatment
600 The first windmills are built in Persia .
1310 Mechinical clocks appeared in Europe
1493 -1541 Paracelus theorized about disease
1543 In his book De revolutionibus , Nicolaus Copernicus places the Sun, not the Earth, at the centre
of the Solar System.
Andreas Vesalius founds Modern Anatomy .
1572 Tycho Brahe observes a supernova .
1589 Galileo Law of falling body.
1590 Dutch eyeglass maker Zacharias Janseen discovered Compound
1608 Hans Lipperhey invented first telescope.
1609 Galileo is first to use telescopes in Astronomy.
1610 Galileo Galilei observed the moons of Jupiter through a telescope.
1618 -1821 Johannes Kepler published his laws of planetary motion
1621 Willebrord Snell discovered the Law of Refraction
1628 Willam Harvey published his discovery of the circulation of the
1642 Pascal invented a Calculator
1643 Mercury barometer invented by Evangelista Torricelli.
1658 Red Blood Cell discovered
1665 Robert Hooke described living cells
1668 Newton invented the reflecting telescope.
1674 – 1683 Discovery of Microorganisms by Antoni van Leeuwenhoek.
1678 Theory of light Waves purposed by Christian Huygens.
1684 Invention of Calculus.
1687 Publication of Newton’s Principa, which includes his laws of Gravitation.
1714 Fahrenheit made the first Mercury Thermometer.
1737 Carl Linnaeus developed biological classification.
1742 Celsius scale developed
1754 Joseph Black discovered Carbondioxide
1758 Halley’s Comet returns, as predicted.
1777 Coulomb’s law formulated.
1780 Industrical revolution began John Michell is the first persons to suggest the existence of
‘dark stars’ – now known as black holes.
1796 Smallpox Vaccine discovered by Edward Jenner.
1802 Thomas Young published his first paper on the wave theory of light.
Jean – Baptiste Lamarck invented the term ‘biology’.
1803 John Dalton proposed the atomic theory of matter.
1811 Amedeo Avogadro proposed the law that gases contain equal numbers of molecules under the same
1819 Hans Christian Oersred discovered electromagnetism.
1826 First photograph from nature obtained by Nicephore Niepce.
1828 Friedrich Wohler synthesized an organic compound (urea) from inorganic ingredients.
1831 Michael Faraday and Joseph Henry discovered Electromagnetic Induction.
Charles Darwin set sail on the Beagle
1837 First Telegraph invented.
1839 Cell theory proposed.
1842 Existence of Dinosaurs proposed.
First law of thermodyanamics
Christian Doppler described the effect that now bears his name.
1850 Second Law of Thermodynamics
1851 Jean Focault used his eponymous pendulum to demonstrate the rotation of Earth.
1854 Boolean Algebra developed.
1857 Publication of Darwin’s Origin of Species.Coincidentally,
Gregor Mendal began his experiments with pea breeding
1864 James Clerk Maxwell formulated equations describing all electric and magnetic phenomena,
and shows that light is an electromagnetic wave
1865 Louis Pasteur developed Pasteurization.
Basic principle of Genetics published.
1871 Dmitri Mendeleyev published Periodic Table of elements
1875 Countries adopt Metric System
1876 First telephone constructed.
1877 Internal combustion engine invented.
1879 Electric light developed.
1887 Experiment carried out by Albert Michelson and Edward0 Morley finds no evidence for the
existence of an ‘ether’.
1895 X-ray discovered by Wilhelm Rontgen.
1895 Birth of Cinema
1896 Antonie Becquerel discovered radioactivity.
1897 Electron identified by Joseph Thomson.
1898 Marie and Pierre Curie discovered radium.
1900 Quantum theory developed
1903 First Airplane made.
1905 Einstein’s special theory of relativity published.
1906 Triode Valve invented
1909 Modern Plastic created
1912 Discovery of cosmic rays by Victor Hess.
1913 Discovery of the ozone layer by Charles Fabry.
Ernest Rutherford discovered the proton, a name he coins in 1919.
1915 Einstein presented his general theory of relativity
1916 Karl Schwarzschild showed that the general theory of relativity predicts the existence of what
are now called Black holes.
1919 First artifical Nuclear reaction Louis de Broglie suggests that electeons can
behave as waves.
1926 Robert H. Goddard invented Liquid-Fueled Rocket
1927 Werner Heisenberg developed the uncertainty principle.
1928 Alexander Fleming discovered Penicillin.
1929 Edwin Hubble discovers that the Universe is expanding.
1932 Neutron discovered by James Chadwick.
1937 Grote Reber built the first radio telescope.
1938 Nuclear Fission has undergone
1942 First controlled nuclear reaction achieved by Enrico Fermi and others.
1945 First Atomic Bomb developed
1948 Transistor Invented
1949 Virus Grown in Tissue
1951 Francis Crick and James Watson work out the helix structure of DNA ,using X-ray results
obtained by Rosalind Franklin
1952 U.S Detonated the First Hydrogen Bomb.
Jonas Salk developd the Polio Vaccine
1953 DNA Structure Revealed
1957 USSR Launches First Artifical Satellite.
1960 Quasars Discovered.
Jacques Monod and Francis Jacob identified messenger RNA.
1961 First Human in Space
1962 Mariner 2 space Probe
1963 Quark theory purposed.
1967 Discovery of the first pulsar Jocelyn Bell.
First heart Transplant.
1969 First people to Walk on the Moon.
1971 First Microprocessor produced.
1975 First personal Computer developed.
1983 HIV Aids virus identified
1986 Chernobyl’ Nuclear Plant (Ukrain) Exploded.
1990 Hubble Space Telescope launched into Earth Orbit
1995 Top quark identified.
Telescope confirmed the Kuiper Belt
1997 Sheep (Dolly) Cloned
1998 International Space Station established
2000 Draft of Human Genome Completed.
2001 First Space Tourist (Dennis Tito)
2005 Space Shuttle Discovery launched
2006 Nuclear fusion is possible in practice.
Refractive index may also be negative
Galileo–era is launched by ESA
New Horizon is launched by NASA.