Brief History of Science & Technology

Gopal Bhandari
Gopal Bhandari

Brief History of  Science & Technology

2000 BC              Chinese developed  Acupuncture

1900 BC               Knowledge of Geometry documented

1500 BC               Iron Age began in Southwest Asia

550 BC                Anaximander Mapped the World

500 BC                Pythagorean Theorem discovered

430 BC                Democritus teaches that everything is made of atoms.

350 BC                Aristotle classifies Plants and Animals

                             Hippocratic Oath originates

330 BC                 Aristotle teaches that the Universe is made of concentric spheres, centred on the Earth.

300 BC                 Euclid gathered together and wrote down the mathematical knowledge of his time.

240 BC                 Eratosthenes Measured the Earth’s Circumference Archimedes calculated Pi

215 BC                 Archimedes discovered law of Hydrostatics

105 AD                 Paper made in China.

132                       Chinese philosopher Chang Heng invented a Seismoscope.

140                        Greek astronomer Ptolemy proposed a model of universe with Earth Stationary at the centre.

450                        Indian Physician  Susruta described ill and treatment

600                        The first  windmills are built in Persia .

1310                      Mechinical clocks appeared in Europe

1493 -1541           Paracelus theorized about disease

1543                     In his book De revolutionibus , Nicolaus Copernicus places the Sun, not the Earth, at the centre

of  the Solar System.

Andreas Vesalius founds Modern Anatomy  .

1572                     Tycho Brahe observes a supernova .

1589                    Galileo Law of falling body.

1590                    Dutch eyeglass maker Zacharias Janseen discovered Compound    


1608                    Hans Lipperhey invented first telescope.

1609                    Galileo is first to use telescopes in Astronomy.

1610                    Galileo Galilei observed the moons of Jupiter through a telescope.

1618 -1821          Johannes Kepler published his laws of planetary motion

1621                    Willebrord Snell discovered the Law of Refraction

1628                     Willam Harvey published his discovery of the circulation of the


1642                  Pascal invented a Calculator

1643                  Mercury barometer invented by Evangelista Torricelli.

1658                  Red Blood Cell discovered

1665                  Robert Hooke described living cells

1668                  Newton invented the reflecting telescope.

1674 – 1683      Discovery of Microorganisms by  Antoni van Leeuwenhoek.

1678                  Theory of light Waves  purposed by Christian Huygens.

1684                  Invention of Calculus.

1687                  Publication of Newton’s Principa, which includes his laws of  Gravitation.

1714                  Fahrenheit made the first Mercury Thermometer.

1737                  Carl Linnaeus developed biological classification.

1742                  Celsius scale developed

1754                  Joseph Black discovered Carbondioxide

1758                  Halley’s Comet returns, as predicted.

1777                  Coulomb’s law formulated.

1780                  Industrical revolution began John Michell is the first persons to suggest the existence of

‘dark stars’ – now known as black holes.

1796                   Smallpox Vaccine discovered by Edward Jenner.

1802                   Thomas Young published his first paper on the wave theory of light.

Jean – Baptiste Lamarck invented the term ‘biology’.

1803                    John Dalton proposed the atomic theory of matter.

1811                    Amedeo Avogadro proposed  the law that gases contain equal numbers of molecules under the same


1819                    Hans Christian  Oersred  discovered electromagnetism.

1826                    First photograph from nature obtained by Nicephore Niepce.

1828                   Friedrich Wohler synthesized an organic compound (urea) from inorganic ingredients.

1831                   Michael Faraday and Joseph Henry discovered Electromagnetic Induction.                                        

                            Charles Darwin set sail on the Beagle

1837                    First Telegraph  invented.

1839                    Cell theory  proposed.

1842                    Existence of Dinosaurs proposed.

First law of thermodyanamics

Christian Doppler described the effect that now bears his name.

1850                     Second Law of Thermodynamics

1851                    Jean Focault used  his eponymous pendulum to demonstrate  the rotation of Earth.

1854                    Boolean Algebra  developed.

1857                    Publication of Darwin’s Origin of Species.Coincidentally,

Gregor Mendal began his experiments with pea breeding

1864                    James Clerk Maxwell formulated equations describing all electric and magnetic phenomena,

and shows that  light is  an electromagnetic wave

1865                     Louis Pasteur developed Pasteurization.

Basic principle of Genetics published.

1871                       Dmitri Mendeleyev  published Periodic Table of elements

1875                       Countries adopt Metric System

1876                       First telephone  constructed.

1877                        Internal combustion engine  invented.

1879                        Electric light developed.

1887                        Experiment carried out by Albert Michelson and  Edward0 Morley finds no evidence for the

existence of an  ‘ether’.

1895                         X-ray discovered by Wilhelm Rontgen.

1895                         Birth of Cinema

1896                         Antonie Becquerel discovered radioactivity.

1897                         Electron identified by Joseph Thomson.

1898                         Marie and Pierre Curie discovered  radium.

1900                         Quantum theory developed

1903                         First Airplane made.

1905                         Einstein’s special theory of relativity published.

1906                         Triode Valve invented

1909                          Modern Plastic created

1912                          Discovery  of cosmic rays by Victor Hess.

1913                          Discovery of the ozone layer by Charles Fabry.

Ernest Rutherford discovered the proton, a name  he coins in 1919.

1915                           Einstein presented his general theory of relativity

1916                           Karl Schwarzschild showed that the general theory of relativity predicts the existence of what

are now  called Black holes.

1919                          First artifical Nuclear reaction Louis de Broglie suggests that electeons can

                                   behave as  waves.                                    

1926                              Robert H. Goddard  invented Liquid-Fueled Rocket

1927                              Werner Heisenberg developed the uncertainty principle.

1928                               Alexander Fleming discovered Penicillin.

1929                               Edwin Hubble discovers that the Universe is expanding.

1932                               Neutron discovered by James Chadwick.

1937                               Grote Reber built the first radio telescope.

1938                                Nuclear Fission has undergone

1942                                First controlled nuclear reaction achieved by Enrico Fermi and others.

1945                               First Atomic Bomb developed

1948                                Transistor Invented

1949                                 Virus Grown in Tissue

1951                                  Francis Crick and James Watson work out the helix structure of DNA ,using X-ray results

obtained by Rosalind Franklin

1952                                 U.S Detonated the First Hydrogen Bomb.

Jonas Salk developd the Polio Vaccine

1953                                  DNA Structure Revealed

1957                                  USSR Launches First Artifical Satellite.

1960                                  Quasars Discovered.

Jacques Monod and Francis Jacob identified messenger RNA.

1961                                   First Human in Space

1962                                   Mariner 2 space Probe

1963                                  Quark theory purposed.

1967                                  Discovery of the first pulsar Jocelyn Bell.

                                          First heart Transplant.

1969                                  First people to Walk on the Moon.

1971                                  First Microprocessor produced.

1975                                  First personal Computer developed.

1983                                  HIV Aids virus identified

1986                                  Chernobyl’ Nuclear Plant (Ukrain) Exploded.

1990                                  Hubble Space Telescope  launched into Earth Orbit

1995                                  Top quark identified.

Telescope confirmed the Kuiper Belt

1997                                  Sheep (Dolly) Cloned

1998                                  International Space Station established

2000                                  Draft of Human Genome Completed.

2001                                  First Space Tourist (Dennis Tito)

2005                                  Space Shuttle Discovery launched

2006                                  Nuclear fusion is possible in practice.

Refractive index may also be negative

                                          Galileo–era is launched by ESA

                                          New Horizon is launched by NASA.

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